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2017-08-02    À´Ô´:ŦԼʱ±¨    ¡¾´ó ÖРС¡¿      ÃÀ¹úÍâ½Ì ÔÚÏß¿ÚÓïÅàѵ
The 26m employed Britons earn on average ¡ê90 ($112) a day. Á½Ç§Áù°ÙÍòÃûÔÚÖ°µÄÓ¢¹úÈËÿÌìƽ¾ùÄÜÕõ90°÷£¨112ÃÀÔª£©¡£
Covering the shortfall would cost around ¡ê120bn a year, equivalent to the budget of the National Health Service. Ò»ÄêÀïÿÖܶ¼ÉÙÉÏÒ»Ìì°àËù½ÚÊ¡µÄ·ÑÓÃÓÐһǧÁ½°ÙÒÚÓ¢°÷£¬Ï൱ÓÚÓ¢¹ú¹úÃñÒ½ÁƱ£½¡ÖƶÈÒ»ÄêµÄÔ¤Ëã¡£
The Greens' proposals encounter two problems. µ«ÊÇÂ̵³µÄÌáÒéÅöµ½Á½¸öÎÊÌâ¡£
First, the theory. µÚÒ»¸öÊÇÀíÂÛ·½Ãæ¡£
They argue that the reduced hours worked by some could be redistributed to others in order to lower underemployment. ÓеÄÈËÌá³öһЩÈ˼õÉٵŤ×÷ʱ³¤½«»á±»ÖØзÖÅä¸øÆäËûÈË£¬ÒÔ´ËÀ´½µµÍ²»³ä·Ö¾ÍÒµ¡£
They thus fall prey to the “lump of labour fallacy”, the notion that there is a fixed amount of work to be done which can be shared out in different ways to create fewer or more jobs. ÕâЩÈËÊÇÉîÊÜ“ÀͶ¯Á¦Ó·Ö×ÃýÂÛ”ÕâÒ»¹ÛµãÀ§ÈÅ£»Æ京ÒåÊÇ£¬ÐèÒªÍê³ÉµÄ¹¤×÷×ÜÁ¿Êǹ̶¨µÄ£¬²»¹ýÕâ¿ÉÒÔͨ¹ý²»Í¬µÄ·½Ê½Ôö¼Ó»ò¼õÉÙ¾ÍÒµ»ú»á¡£
In fact, if people worked fewer hours, demand would drop, and so fewer working hours would be on offer.
µ«ÊÂʵÉÏ£¬Èç¹ûÈËÃǵŤ×÷ʱ¼ä±ä¶Ì£¬ÄÇô¶ÔÀͶ¯Á¦µÄÐèÇóÒ²»á¼õÉÙ£¬ËùÒÔÀͶ¯Á¦ÌṩµÄ×ܹ¤×÷ʱ³¤Ò²»á¼õÉÙ¡£
Second, the cost. µÚ¶þÊÇ·ÑÓá£
Increased productivity could cover some of the costs of paying a five-day wage for a four-day week, suggests Sarah Lyall of the New Economics Foundation, a think-tank. ÖÇÄÒÍÅ»ú¹¹Ð¾­¼Ã»ù½ð»áµÄSarah Lyall±íʾ£¬Ìá¸ßµÄÉú²úÂÊ¿ÉÄÜ»áÓÉÓÚÔÚËÄÌ칤×÷ÈÕÀïÖ§¸¶Ï൱ÓÚÎåÌ칤×÷ÈյŤ×ʶøÔö¼ÓÁ˳ɱ¾¡£
She points to a Glasgow marketing company that did just that, and experienced a 30% leap in productivity. ËýÒ²Ö¸³öGlasgowÓªÏú¹«Ë¾Ò²ÊµÐÐÕâ¸öÕþ²ß£¬ËûÃǵÄÉú²úÂÊÒ²ÉÏÉýÁË30%¡£
But that is an astonishing increase to expect across the board. µ«ÊǸ÷¸ö·½ÃæµÄ³É±¾¶¼ÓÐÁ˾ªÈ˵ÄÔö³¤¡£
The Greens say they are in the early stages of exploring the idea and have not yet produced firm costings. Â̵³ËµËûÃǶÔÕâ¸öÏë·¨µÄ̽Ë÷»¹´¦ÓÚ³õ¼¶½×¶Î£¬Ò²²¢Ã»ÓоßÌå·ÖÎöÕâ¸öÕþ²ßÊÇ·ñ»áÓ°ÏìÉú²úÐÍÆóÒµµÄ³É±¾ºËËã¡£
It might be useful to do so before next month's local elections. ÔÚϸöÔµĴóÑ¡Ç°£¬ËûÃÇ¿ÉÄÜ»áÔÚµ³ÄÚʵÐÐÕâ¸öÕþ²ß¡£
That leaves little time—but presumably the party's policymakers will raise their productivity accordingly. ËäÈ»¹¤×÷ʱ¼ä»á¼õÉÙ£¬µ«Êǵ³Äڵľö²ßÕß´ó¸Å½«»áÏàÓ¦µÄÌá¸ßЧÂÊ¡£  

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