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As everything from tooth brushes to tractors grows more connected, the phenomenon is spreading to other industries.
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The latest iterations gather mounds of data, analyse them and serve up the results, thus enabling all kinds of digital offerings, from predicting failures to giving advice.
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One example of such a data platform is Nest, a subsidiary of Alphabet, Google’s holding company.
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It sells devices, such as wireless thermostats and smoke detectors, which double as vehicles to collect information, allowing the company to offer tailored energy and security services.
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This trend alarms non-tech firms.
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They fret that if the likes of Apple and Google come to control such data platforms, these new intermediaries will seize a big chunk of their profits.
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This fear has sparked a rush to build or buy such systems.
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Last year car-makers Audi, BMW and Daimler acquired Here, a digital-mapping firm.
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General Electric, an American conglomerate, is betting big on Predix, which helps customers improve how they run locomotives, jet engines and other gear.
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Apollo Hospitals in India is creating a marketplace for health-care services.
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Many more established companies are sure to follow suit, as are thousands of startups.
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But before they tread this path, they should consider a few caveats.
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First, most products and services are not substantial enough to make a good platform.
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And even if they are, it is not always a good idea to turn them into one, says Ms Gawer, who is co-authoring a book to debunk myths about the concept.
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The late Steve Jobs, for instance, long resisted opening Apple’s app store to others for fear of losing control.
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Second, network effects often fizzle.
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All sides of an online marketplace have to be nurtured in parallel to avoid imbalances, such as having far more sellers than buyers.
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During the dotcom bubble most business-to-business marketplaces failed because their pursuit of growth led to such lopsidedness.
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Even firms that had a head start, such as MySpace and Nokia, a social network and a mobile-phone maker respectively, didn’t manage to turn them- selves into fully fledged platforms.
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Most successful ones are the product of specific circumstances and even chance, reckons Peter Evans of CGE.
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Amazon, for example, took off in part because its customers did not have to pay sales tax if they were outside the firm’s home state, Washington.
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Third, it is not always easy to make money from platforms.
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Misjudge how much to charge each group of customers, and the flywheel can come to a juddering halt.
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What is more, for a platform to make good money, switching to a rival has to be costly, argues Andrei Hagiu of Harvard Business School.
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This risk even hangs over Uber, the fast-expanding taxi-hailing service: using a competitor is easy for both passengers and drivers.
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Platforms with a leg in the physical world are likely to take more time to emerge than the purely digitalsort.
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And firms have some alternatives: those with outstanding products and a strong brand can try to forgo others’ platforms, hoping that they succeed on their own.
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But ultimately most firms will have no choice but to do business on somebody else’s digital property, and to agitate for better terms if the owner gets too greedy.
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Call it the class struggle of platform capitalism.
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