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2018-09-03    À´Ô´:δ֪    ¡¾´ó ÖРС¡¿      ÃÀ¹úÍâ½Ì ÔÚÏß¿ÚÓïÅàѵ
ÐÂѧÆÚ¿ªÊ¼ÁË£¬ºÜ¶àÈË¿ÉÄܳäÂú¶·Ö¾£¬Õâ¸öѧÆÚÎÒÒ»¶¨ÒªºÃºÃѧϰ£¡¶à¶ÁÊ飡ÅÝͼÊé¹Ý£¡µ«ÊÇÕæÕýÄܼá³ÖµÄÈËÈ´ÉÙÖ®ÓÖÉÙ¡£Ñ§Ï°ÊÇÒ»¼þ½²¾¿Ð§ÂʵÄÊÂÇ飬ÈçºÎ¸ßЧѧϰ²ÅÄÜ»ñµÃ×îºÃµÄ½á¹û£¿²»·Á¿´¿´¹þ·ðÓÅÐã±ÏÒµÉú·ÖÏíµÄ¼¼ÇÉ£¬»òÐí»áÓÐËù°ïÖú¡£   Sophia Chua-Rubenfeld is a graduate student at Harvard and Yale, she is also the daughter of writer Amy Chua who is also known as ‘The Tiger Mom’. Sophia was raised using the tiger parenting technique which pushes children to be as academically successful as possible.  Sophia Chua-Rubenfield£¨²Ì˼»Û£©Êǹþ·ðºÍҮ³µÄ±ÏÒµÉú£¬ËýÒ²ÊÇÃÀ¹ú×÷¼ÒAmy Chua£¨²ÌÃÀ¶ù£©µÄÅ®¶ù£¬²ÌÃÀ¶ùÒ²±»³ÆΪ“»¢Â蔡£Sophia´ÓСÔÚ»¢Âèʽ½ÌÓýϳ¤´ó£¬Ä¸Ç×Ç¿ÆÈËý¾¡¿ÉÄܵػñµÃѧҵÉϵijɹ¦¡£
 

  Clearly, the philosophy works, Sophia recently became a doctor of Law at Yale law school. On her private blog, Sophia shared tips on how to study like a Harvard student. ËäÈ»ÕâÖÖ¸ßѹ½ÌÓý·½Ê½±¸ÊÜÕùÒ飬µ«ÊÂʵ֤Ã÷È·ÓÐЧ¹û¡£Sophia×î½ü³ÉΪÁËҮ³·¨Ñ§ÔºµÄ·¨Ñ§²©Ê¿£¬ËýÔÚ×Ô¼ºµÄ˽È˲©¿ÍÉÏ·ÖÏíÁËÈçºÎÏñ¹þ·ðѧÉúÒ»ÑùѧϰµÄѧϰ¼¼ÇÉ¡£  

  Preliminary Steps ×¼±¸²½Öè   1. Choose classes that interest you. That way studying doesn't feel like slave labor. If you don't want to learn, then I can't help you. Ñ¡Ôñ×Ô¼º¸ÐÐËȤµÄ¿Î³Ì£¬ÕâÑùѧϰ²Å²»»áÏñ×ö¿àÒÛ¡£Èç¹ûÄã×Ô¼º²»Ïëѧϰ£¬ÄÇô˭¶¼Ã»°ì·¨°ïÄã¡£   2. Make some friends. See steps 12, 13, 23, 24. ½»Ò»Ð©ÅóÓÑ£¬¼û²½Öè12¡¢13¡¢23¡¢24¡£   General Principles ×ÜÔò   3. Study less but study better. ¸ßЧѧϰ¡£   4. Avoid Autopilot Brain at all costs. ¾¡Á¿±ÜÃâ´óÄÔ´¦ÓÚDZÒâʶ“×Ô¶¯¼ÝÊ»”״̬¡£   5. Vague is bad. Vague is a waste of your time.  º¬ºý²»ÇåºÜ²»ºÃ£¬ÕâÊÇÔÚÀË·Ñʱ¼ä¡£   6. Write it down. дÏÂÀ´¡£   7. Suck it up, buckle down, get it done. Õñ×÷ÆðÀ´£¬È«Á¦ÒÔ¸°£¬Íê³ÉËü¡£  

  Plan of Attack Phase I: Class µÚÒ»½×¶Î£ºÉÏ¿Î   8. Show up. Everything will make a lot more sense that way, and you will save yourself a lot of time in the long run. °´Ê±ÉϿΡ£ÕâÑù¸üÓÐÒâÒå¶øÇÒ´Ó³¤Ô¶¿´¸ü½Úʡʱ¼ä¡£   9. Take notes by hand. I don't know the science behind it, but doing anything by hand is a way of carving it into your memory. ÊÖд±Ê¼Ç¡£ËäÈ»ÎÒÒ²²»Çå³þÕâ±³ºóµÄ¿Æѧ£¬µ«ÊÇÓÃÊÖ×öÈκÎÊÂÇ鶼ÊÇÒ»ÖÖ°ïÖú½«Æä¿ÌÈë¼ÇÒäÖеķ½Ê½¡£   Phase II: Study Time µÚ¶þ½×¶Î£ºÑ§Ï°Ê±¼ä   10. Get out of the library. The sheer fact of being in a library doesn't fill you with knowledge. Eight hours of Facebooking in the library is still eight hours of Facebooking. Also, people who bring food and blankets to the library and just stay there during finals week start to smell weird. Go home and bathe. You can quiz yourself while you wash your hair. À뿪ͼÊé¹Ý¡£ÔÚͼÊé¹ÝÀïºÄʱ¼ä²¢²»ÄܷḻÄãµÄ֪ʶ´¢´æ¡£ÔÚͼÊé¹ÝË¢8¸öСʱµÄÊÖ»ú£¬±¾ÖÊÈÔÈ»ÊÇÍæÁË8¸öСʱÊÖ»ú¡£»¹ÓÐһЩÈË»á´ø×ÅʳÎïºÍ̺×ÓȥͼÊé¹Ý£¬²¢ÇÒÖ»Óп¼ÊÔÖܲŻáȥͼÊé¹Ý¡£ÕâÑù»¹²»Èç»Ø¼ÒÏ´Ô裬»¹¿ÉÒÔÔÚÏ´Í·µÄʱºò½øÐÐ×ÔÎÒ²âÊÔ¡£   11. Do a little everyday, but don't let it be your whole day."This afternoon, I will read a chapter of something and do half a problem set. Then, I will go to the gym" ALWAYS BEATS "Starting right now, I am going to read as much as I possibly can... oh wow, now it's midnight, I'm on page five, and my room reeks of ramen and dysfunction." ÿÌ춨¸öСĿ±ê£¬µ«²»ÒªÈÃËüÕ¼¾ÝÒ»ÕûÌìʱ¼ä¡£±ÈÈ瓽ñÌìÏÂÎçÎÒÒª¶ÁÒ»Õ½ÚÊ飬×öÒ»°ëÏ°Ì⣬ȻºóÔÙÈ¥½¡Éí·¿¡£”Ò»°ãÒªÓÅÓÚ“ÏÖÔÚ¿ªÊ¼£¬ÎÒÒª¾¡¿ÉÄܵضà¶ÁÊé¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£ÏÖÔÚÒѾ­ÎçÒ¹ÁË£¬ÎÒ¿´µ½µÚÎåÒ³ÁË£¬µ«ÊÇÎÒÓÖ¶öÓÖÀ§£¬ºÃÏë³Ô¶«Î÷ÐÝÏ¢¡£”   12. Give yourself incentive. There's nothing worse than a gaping abyss of study time. If you know you're going out in six hours, you're more likely to get something done. ¸ø×Ô¼ºÒ»µã´Ì¼¤¡£ÏÝÈëѧϰµÄÉîÔ¨ÕæµÄºÜÔã¸â¡£Èç¹ûÄãÖªµÀ×Ô¼º6¸öСʱÄÚÒª³öÃÅ£¬¸üÓпÉÄÜ»áÍê³ÉһЩÊÂÇé¡£   13. Allow friends to confiscate your phone when they catch you playlng Angry Birds. Oh and if you think you need a break, you probably don't. Èç¹û±»×¥µ½ÍæÊÖ»ú£¬ÔÊÐíÅóÓÑûÊÕËü¡£ÓÐʱºòÄã¾õµÃ×Ô¼ºÐèÒªÐÝÏ¢£¬Êµ¼ÊÉÏÆäʵ²»ÐèÒª¡£
 

  Phase III: Assignments µÚÈý½×¶Î£º×÷Òµ   14. Stop highlighting. Underlining is supposed to keep you focused, but it's actually a one-way ticket to Autopilot Brain. You zone out, look down, and suddenly you have five pages of neon green that you don't remember reading. Write notes in the margins instead.  Í£Ö¹»­Öص㡣ÓÐЩÈ˺Üϲ»¶ÓÃÓ«¹â±Ê°ÑÖص㻭³öÀ´£¬¾õµÃÕâÑù¿ÉÒÔ°ïÖú×Ô¼º×¨×¢£¬µ«Êµ¼ÊÉÏÕâ»áÈôóÄÔDZÒâʶ½øÈë“×Ô¶¯¼ÝÊ»”״̬£¬ÂýÂý»á×ßÉñ£¬ÎÞÒâʶµØÏòÏ¿´£¬È»ºóͻȻ·¢ÏÖÓм¸Ò³×Ô¼º²»¼ÇµÃÊÇ·ñ¶Á¹ý¡£×÷ΪÌæ´ú£¬ÇëÔÚ¿Õ°×´¦Ð´Ï±¸×¢¡£   15. Do all your own work. You get nothing out of copying a problem set. ×Ô¼ºµÄ×÷Òµ×Ô¼º×ö¡£³­×÷ÒµµÄÈËʲô¶¼Ñ§²»µ½¡£   16. Read as much as you can. Stop trying to cheat with Sparknotes. ¾¡¿ÉÄܵضàÔĶÁ¡£²»ÒªÊÔͼÓÃSparknotes×÷±×¡£ ×¢£ºSparknotes ÍøÂçѧÊõÑо¿¹¤¾ß   17. Be a smart reader, not a robot. Ask yourself: What is the author trying to prove? What is the logical progression of the argument? You can usually answer these questions by reading the intoduction and conclusion of every chapter. Then, pick any two examples/anecdotes and commit them to memory(write them down). They will help you reconstruct the author's argument later on. ×ö´ÏÃ÷µÄÔĶÁÕ߶ø²»ÊÇ»úÆ÷ÈË¡£ÎÊ×Ô¼ºÒ»Ð©ÎÊÌ⣬±ÈÈç“×÷ÕßÊÔͼ֤Ã÷ʲô£¿”“ÂÛÖ¤µÄÂß¼­½øÕ¹ÊÇʲô£¿”¡£Í¨³£¿ÉÒÔͨ¹ýÔĶÁÿÕµÄÌá¸ÙºÍ½áÊøÓïÀ´»Ø´ðÕâЩÎÊÌ⡣Ȼºó£¬ÌôÑ¡ÈκÎÁ½¸öÀý×Ó/éóÊ£¬²¢°ÑËüÃǼÇÏÂÀ´£¨Ð´ÏÂÀ´£©¡£ËüÃǽ«°ïÖúÄãÖ®ºóÖØй¹½¨×÷ÕßµÄÂ۵㡣   18. Don't read everything, but understand everything that you read. Better to have a deep understanding of a limited amount of material, than to have a vague understanding of an entire course. Once again: Vague is bad. Vague is a waste of your time. ²»ÒªÊ²Ã´¶¼¶Á£¬µ«ÒªÀí½â×Ô¼ºËù¶ÁµÄËùÓС£×îºÃ¶ÔÓÐÏ޵IJÄÁÏÓÐÉîÈëµØÀí½â£¬¶ø²»ÊǶÔÕû¸ö¿Î³ÌÓÐÒ»¸öÄ£ºýµÄÀí½â¡£ÔÙ´ÎÖØÉ꣺º¬ºý²»ÇåºÜ²»ºÃ£¬ÕâÊÇÔÚÀË·Ñʱ¼ä¡£   19. Bullet points. ×ܽáÒªµã¡£
 

  PhaseIV: Reading Period (Review Week) µÚËĽ׶ΣºÔĶÁʱ¼ä£¨¸´Ï°ÖÜ£©   20. Once again: do not move into the library.  ÔÙ´ÎÖØÉ꣺²»ÒªÈ¥Í¼Êé¹ÝºÄʱ¼ä¡£   21. If you don't understand it, it will definitely be on the exam. Solution: textbooks; the internet. Äã²»¶®µÄ¶«Î÷£¬¿¼ÊÔÒ»¶¨»á¿¼¡£½â¾ö·½·¨ÊÇ¿´½Ì²Ä»òÕßÉÏÍøËÑË÷¡£   22. Do all the practice problems. This one is totally tiger mom. ×öËùÓÐÁ·Ï°Ì⣬Õâ¸ö·½Ê½ÕæµÄºÜ»¢Âèstyle¡£   23. People are often contemptuous of rote learning. Even at great intellectual bastions like Harvard, you will be required to memorize fomulas, names and dates. To memorize effectively: stop reading your list over and over again. It doesn't work. Say it out loud, write it down. Remember how you made friends? Have them quiz you, then return the favor. ÈËÃÇͨ³£¿´²»ÉÏËÀ¼ÇÓ²±³¡£µ«¼´Ê¹Êǹþ·ðÕâÑùµÄÖªÃûѧ¸®£¬Ò²»áÒªÇóѧÉú±³¹«Ê½¡¢Ãû×ÖºÍÈÕÆÚ¡£ÎªÁËÓÐЧ¼ÇÒ䣬²»ÒªÔÙÒ»±éÓÖÒ»±é¶Á±Ê¼Ç£¬ÕâûʲôÓᣴóÉù˵³öÀ´²¢ÇÒÓñÊдÏÂÀ´£¬»¹¿ÉÒÔºÍÅóÓÑÏ໥ÌáÎÊ¡£   24. Again with the friends: ask them to listen while you explain a difficult concept to them. This forces you to articulale your understanding. Remember, vague is bad. ÈÃÅóÓÑÇãÌý×Ô¼º½âÊÍÒ»¸ö½ÏÄѵĸÅÄÕâ»áÇ¿ÆÈÎÒÃDzûÊö×Ô¼ºµÄÀí½â£¬Çë¼Çס£¬ º¬ºý²»ÇåÒ»µã¶¼²»ºÃ¡£   25. Go for the big picture. Try to figure out where a specific concept fits into the course as a whole. This will help you tap into Big Themes-every class has Big Themes- which will streamline what you need to know. You can learn a million facts but until you understand how they fit together, you're missing the point. Óдó¾Ö¹Û¡£ÊÔ×ÅÕÒ³öij¸ö¾ßÌå¸ÅÄîÔڿγÌÖеÄÕûÌ嶨λ¡£Õâ»á°ïÖúÎÒÃÇÍÚ¾ò´óÖ÷Ì⣨ÿÃſγ̶¼ÓдóÖ÷Ì⣩£¬¾«¼òÎÒÃÇÐèÒªÖªµÀµÄÄÚÈÝ¡£Äã¿ÉÒÔѧµ½ÎÞÊýÊÂʵ£¬µ«³ý·ÇÃ÷°×ËüÃÇÊÇÈçºÎ½áºÏÔÚÒ»ÆðµÄ£¬·ñÔò¾Í´í¹ýÁËÖص㡣
 

  Phase V: Exam Day µÚÎå½×¶Î£º¿¼ÊÔÈÕ   26. Crush exam. Get A. սʤ¿¼ÊÔ£¬Äõ½A¡£   ¶Ô´Ë£¬ÄãÓÐʲô¿´·¨£¿»¶Ó­ÁôÑÔ·ÖÏí¡£

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