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2005-08-22    À´Ô´:http://www.putclub.com    ¡¾´ó ÖРС¡¿      ÃÀ¹úÍâ½Ì ÔÚÏß¿ÚÓïÅàѵ

Ò».±¾¿ÎÒªµã¼°Ê¾Àý

   ÔÚÕâÒ»¿ÎÀï, ÎÒÃÇÀ´¸´Ï°ÒÔÇ°½Ì¹ýµÄһЩ»ù±¾Óï·¨, ͬʱҲ̸һ̸ÔÚÃÀ¹úѧУÀïµÄÓ¢Óï½Ìѧ¿Î³Ì.Ê×ÏÈÎÒÃÇ»¹ÊÇÏÈÌýÒ»¶Î¶Ô»°,   ÄÚÈÝÊÇ˵±«²ªºÍÕäÄÝÔÚУ԰Àï̸µ½ÁËÊî¼ÙÀï¼Æ»®×÷Щʲô. ÇëÄã×¢ÒâÁ½Î»ÀÏʦµÄ·¢ÒôºÍÓïµ÷.

   M: Well,  Jenny,  the  school  year   is  almost   over.  We  just  have  two more weeks before exams. What do you plan to do this summer?
   F:  I'm  going  to  teach  English  to    some  immigrants  in  the university's community service program.
   M: That sounds interesting. Don't you need to speak a foreign language for a job like that?
   F:  No,  you  don't.  You  just  have  to present  the language simply and give the students a chance to practice speaking.
   M: Come to think of it, that's the way I was  taught  to speak Chinese. But speaking  Chinese didn't help me learn to read and write Chinese.
   F:  My  students  won't  want  to read  and  write  English,  at  least  not now. They are more interested in speaking.
   M: You sound very knowledgeable about all this, How do you know so much?
   F:  I  took  a Teaching  English as  a  Second  Language course last year when you were in China. I've also talked with  the  program  administrators quite  a  lot. I think I would like to be an ESL teacher when I graduate.

   ½ñÌìÎÒÃÇÒª¸´Ï°µÄÓï·¨°üÀ¨Ê±Ì¬, Óï̬, ¶¯´Ê´Ê×é,    ʱ¼ä´Ó¾äºÍÐÎÈÝ´Ê´Ó¾äµÈµÈ. ÏÖÔÚÎÒÃÇÔÙ°ÑÕû¶Î¶Ô»°ÌýÒ»±é. Õâ´ÎÇëÄãÌرð×¢Òâ¾ä×ÓµÄÓï·¨¹¹Ôì.

   M: Well,  Jenny,  the  school  year   is  almost   over.  We  just  have  two more weeks before exams. What do you plan to do this summer?
   F:  I'm  going  to  teach  English  to    some  immigrants  in  the university's community service program.
   M: That sounds interesting. Don't you need to speak a foreign language for a job like that?
   F:  No,  you  don't.  You  just  have  to present  the language simply and give the students a chance to practice speaking.
   M: Come to think of it, that's the way I was  taught  to speak Chinese. But speaking  Chinese didn't help me learn to read and write Chinese.
   F:  My  students  won't  want  to read  and  write  English,  at  least  not now. They are more interested in speaking.
   M: You sound very knowledgeable about all this, How do you know so much?
   F:  I  took  a Teaching  English as  a  Second  Language course last year when you were in China. I've also talked with  the  program  administrators quite  a  lot. I think I would like to be an ESL teacher when I graduate.

¶þ.ʱ̬¸´Ï°

   ÏÖÔÚÎÒÃÇ¿ªÊ¼×÷Á·Ï°.  Ê×ÏÈÎÒÃǸ´Ï°²»Í¬Ê±Ì¬. Á·Ï°µÄ×÷·¨ÊÇÀÏʦ¸ù¾Ý¶Ô»°µÄÄÚÈÝÌá³ö¸÷ÖÖ²»Í¬Ê±Ì¬µÄÎÊÌâ,  ÇëѧÉú×÷¿Ï¶¨µÄ´ð¸². ѧÉú×÷Á·Ï°µÄʱºòÇëÄãÒ²Ò»Æð×÷, ²¢ÇÒÌرð×¢Òâʱ̬µÄÓ÷¨.

   M: Is the school year almost over?
   F:  Yes, the school year is almost over.
   M: Is Jenny talking to Bob?
   F:  Yes, Jenny is talking to Bob.
   M: Has she gotten a job for the summer?
   F:  Yes, she has gotten a job for the summer.
   M: Is  she  going to  teach English  to some   immigrants   in   the  university's  community service program?
   F:  Yes, she is going to teach English  to  some    immigrants  in  the  university's  community service program.
   M: Will it be a helpful experience for her?
   F:  Yes, it will be a helpful experience for her.
   M: Did she take an English as a Second Language course last year?
   F:  Yes, she took an English as a Second Language course last year.
   M: Had she thought about being an ESL teacher before she took that course?
   F:  Yes, she had thought about being an ESL teacher before she took that course.

Èý.¸´Ï°¶¯´Ê + TO + ¶¯´Ê

   ÏÂÃæÎÒÃǸ´Ï°¶¯´Ê¼ÓÉÏ to, t-o, to  ÔÙ¼ÓÉ϶¯´ÊµÄÓ÷¨. Á·Ï°µÄÄÚÈÝ˵µ½ÒÆÃñµ½ÃÀ¹úÖ®ºóÐèҪѧӢÎĵÄÔ­Òò.    Á·Ï°µÄ×÷·¨ÊÇÀÏʦÄîÒ»¸ö¾ä×Ó,   ѧÉú¸ú×Å˵һ±é,  ½Ó×ÅÀÏʦÄîÒ»¸ö´Ê×é, ѧÉú¾Í°Ñ´Ê×é´ú»»µ½Ô­À´µÄ¾ä×ÓÀï. Õâ×éÁ·Ï°ÀïµÄ´Ê»ã¶¼ÊÇÒÔǰѧ¹ýµÄ. ÇëÄã¸úѧÉúÒ»Æð×÷Á·Ï°.

   M: The immigrants would like to learn English.
   M: enroll in an English class
   F:  The immigrants would like to enroll in an English class.
   M: need to
   F:  The immigrants need to enroll in an English class.
   M: make a living in the U.S.
   F:  The immigrants need to make a living in the U.S.
   M: talk to people in English
   F:  The immigrants need to talk to people in English.
   M: want to
   F:  The immigrants want to talk to people in English.
   M: communicate with people in English
   F:  The immigrants want to communicate with people in English.
   M: resettle in the U.S.
   F:  The immigrants want to resettle in the U.S.
   M: hope to
   F:  The immigrants hope to resettle in the U.S.
   M: establish themselves in the U.S.
   F:  The immigrants hope to establish themselves in the U.S.
   M: become American citizens
   F:  The immigrants hope to become American citizens.

ËÄ.¸´Ï°±íÃ÷ʱ¼äµÄ´Ó¾ä

   ÏÂÃæÎÒÃǸ´Ï°ÓÃÀ´±íÃ÷ʱ¼äµÄ´Ó¾ä. Á·Ï°µÄÄÚÈÝ˵µ½ÒÆÃñѧӢÎĵÄÇé¿ö. Á·Ï°µÄ×÷·¨ÊÇÀÏʦÌá³öÎÊÌâ,±È·½:  "×Ô´ÓËûÃÇ°áµ½ÃÀ¹úÒÔÀ´,    ËûÃÇѧµ½ÁËһЩË×ÓïÂð?"   Have  they  picked  up  some    idiomatic  expressions  since  they moved to the U.S.? ѧÉú¾Í×÷¿Ï¶¨µÄ´ð¸².ÇëÄã¸úѧÉúÒ»Æð×÷Á·Ï°µÄʱºòÌرð×¢Òâʱ¼ä´Ó¾äµÄÓ÷¨. ÏÖÔÚ¿ªÊ¼.

   M: Did some of them study English before they left their homelands?
   F:  Yes, some of them studied English before they left their homelands.
   M: Did some of them enroll in school as soon as they resettled in the U.S?
   F:  Yes, some of them enrolled in school as soon as they resettled in the U.S.
   M: Did some of them go to night school after they started working full time?
   F:  Yes, some of them went to night school after they started working full time.
   M: Have they picked up some idiomatic expressions since they moved to the U.S.?
   F:  Yes, some of them have picked up some idiomatic expressions since they moved to the U.S.
   M: Do they try to speak English whenever they have a chance?
   F:  Yes, they try to speak English whenever they have a chance.

Îå.¸´Ï° WHEN ¿ªÍ·µÄʱ¼ä´Ó¾äºÍÐÎÈÝ´Ê

   ÏÂÃæÎÒÃÇÒ»±ß¸´Ï°Óà when ¿ªÍ·µÄʱ¼ä´Ó¾ä, Ò»±ß¸´Ï°ÐÎÈÝ´Ê. Á·Ï°µÄÄÚÈÝ˵µ½Ò»°ãѧӢÓïµÄÈËÔÚѧϰ¹ý³ÌÖеÄÐÄÇé. ±È·½ÓÐÀ§ÄѵÄʱºò¾õµÃÆøÄÙ, ˵´íÁ˾õµÃºÜ¾½µÈµÈ. Á·Ï°µÄ×÷·¨ÊÇÀÏʦÄîÒ»¸ö¾ä×Ó, ½Ó×ÅÀÏʦÄîÒ»¸ö´Ó¾ä»òÊÇÒ»¸öÖ÷Òª¾ä×Ó. ѧÉú±ØÐëÒªÕå×ÃÇé¿öÕýÈ·µØ°Ñ¾ä×Ó´ú»»µ½Ô­À´µÄÕû¾ä»°Àï. Äã¸úѧÉúÒ»Æð×÷Á·Ï°µÄʱºòÒªÌرð×¢ÒâÓ¦¸Ã´ú»»Äĸö²¿·Ö. ÏÖÔÚ¿ªÊ¼.

   M: They feel discouraged when they have difficulties.
   M: when they make a mistake
   F:  They feel discouraged when they make a mistake.
   M: They feel embarrassed.
   F:  They feel embarrassed when they make a mistake.
   M: when they don't understand what people say
   F:  They feel embarrassed when they don't understand what people say.
   M: They feel helpless.
   F:  They feel helpless when they don't understand what people say.
   M: They feel nervous.
   F:  They feel nervous when they don't understand what people say.
   M: when they express their thoughts in English
   F:  They feel nervous when they express their thoughts in English.

Áù.¸´Ï° WHEN ¿ªÍ·µÄÐÎÈÝ´Ê´Ó¾ä

   ¸Õ²ÅÎÒÃÇ×÷µÄ¼¸×éÁ·Ï°¶¼ÊÇ˵µ½Íâ¹úÈËÔÚÃÀ¹úѧӢÓïµÄÇé¿ö.    ÏÖÔÚÎÒÃÇ×÷Ò»×éÁ·Ï°Ò»·½Ã渴ϰÓà when, w-h-e-n,  when    ¿ªÍ·µÄÐÎÈÝ´Ê´Ó¾ä, Ò»·½Ãæ̸һ̸Ðí¶àÃÀ¹úÈËѧÍâ¹ú»°µÄÔ­Òò.    Á·Ï°µÄ×÷·¨ÊÇÀÏʦ˵һ¾ä»°,  ½Ó×ÅÀÏʦÄîÒ»¸ö´Ó¾ä.  ѧÉú¾Í°Ñ´Ó¾ä´ú»»µ½Ô­À´µÄ¾ä×ÓÀï.    ÇëÄã¸úѧÉúÒ»Æð×÷Á·Ï°µÄʱºòÒ»±ß×¢ÒâÓï·¨½á¹¹, Ò»±ß¸´Ï°´Ê»ã. ÏÖÔÚ¿ªÊ¼.

   M: Those who want to understand a foreign culture need to learn a foreign language.
   M: who want to do business with a foreign company
   F:  Those who want to do business with a foreign company need to learn a foreign language.
   M: who want to negotiate with a foreign corporation
   F:  Those who want to negotiate with a foreign corporation need to learn a foreign language.
   M: who want to communicate with foreigners
   F:  Those who want to communicate with foreigners need to learn a foreign language.
   M: who want to travel in a foreign country
   F:  Those who want to travel in a foreign country need to learn a foreign language.
   M: who want to live in a foreign country
   F:  Those who want to live in a foreign country need to learn a foreign language.

Æß.¸´Ï°±»¶¯Óï̬

   ÏÂÃæÎÒÃÇ×÷Ò»×éÁ·Ï°Ò»·½Ã渴ϰ±»¶¯Óï̬, Ò»·½Ãæ̸һ̸±«²ªÑ§ÖÐÎĵľ­Ñé.Á·Ï°µÄ×÷·¨ÊÇÀÏʦÄîÒ»¸öÖ÷¶¯Óï̬¾ä×Ó,ÇëÄã°Ñ¾ä×Ӹijɱ»¶¯Óï̬˵³öÀ´. ÿ×÷ÍêÒ»¾ä, ÀÏʦ¾Í°ÑÕýÈ·´ð°¸Äî¸øÄãÌý.

   M: Foreign languages impress Bob.
   F:  Bob is impressed with foreign languages.
   M: His parents have always encouraged him to study a foreign language.
   F:  He has always been encouraged to study a foreign language.
   M: His mother had taught him Chinese when he was small.
   F:  He had been taught Chinese when he was small.
   M: His  Chinese  instructor  told  him  about  the   study-abroad  program   when   he     was  a university student.
   F:  He was told about the study-abroad program when he was a university student.
   M: He hopes that a university in China will offer him a scholarship to study there someday.
   F:  He hopes that he will be offered a scholarship to study in China someday.

°Ë.Ìý¶ÌÎĻشðÎÊÌâ

   ½ñÌìÎÒÃÇÒªÌýµÄÎÄÕÂ̸µ½ÃÀ¹úѧУΪÁË°ïÖúÍâ¹úÈËѧӢÓï¶øÉèÁ¢µÄÓ¢Óï½Ìѧ¼Æ»®.ÇëÄã×¢ÒâÌý.

   The United States is primarily an English speaking country. The majority of   the population speaks English as  their native language.  Business,  education  and most  public aspects of life are conducted in English. Across  the country,  people  pronounce    English  sounds  in several  different  ways    and some regional  vocabulary  differences  exist,  but  for  the most part, Americans speak one common language.  This language is sometimes called  American English.  However, not everyone  in  the U.S.  is  a  native  speaker of  English.  Most immigrants to the country are speakers of other languages. There are hundreds  of communities around  the  U.S. where English  is  not  the most commonly  used  language.  Chinese, Italian,  German,  Armenian, Greek, Vietnamese and French  are all spoken in numerous communities in the U.S. Spanish  is  the  second most  commonly spoken   language   after  English  in    the  U. S. It is widely spoken in New York and across the southern part of the country. For speakers of other languages, learning English is  important,   but  traditionally  teaching people  to  speak  English as  a  second    language  was given little attention.  Non-English speakers were expected to "pick up" the language through contact in public. Recently, this has  changed.  Today, most   large  public schools  and community  colleges  have  ESL, English as a  Second  Language, programs.  American English  teachers feel that English students should learn the language  the way they will be using it.  Therefore, ESL programs teach  different  English  lessons  to  different  students.  Some programs  teach students  to communicate  in English in public.  Other  programs teach  the  kind of  English people  will need on their jobs. American  ESL  instructional   methods  emphasize  the importance of  communication  to language learning. These methods do not feature grammatical explanations and translation. The instructional goal is to get the English learners to learn by using  their target language.

   ÏÖÔÚÇëÄã»Ø´ðÏÂÃæÈý¸öÎÊÌâ. Äã»Ø´ðÖ®ºóÀÏʦ»á°ÑÕýÈ·´ð°¸Äî¸øÄãÌý.

   µÚÒ»¸öÎÊÌâÊÇ:
   M: What languages are spoken in the United States?
   F:  Many languages are spoken in the United States.

   µÚ¶þ¸öÎÊÌâÊÇ:
   M: Where can one take English as a Second Language courses in the U.S.?
   F:  One can take ESL courses in public schools and community colleges.

   µÚÈý¸öÎÊÌâÊÇ:
   M: What do American methods of teaching ESL emphasize?
   F:  They emphasize communication.



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